AWS CWI Part A – WIT Chapter 2

AWS CWI Part A – WIT Welding Inspection Technology Chapter 2- Safe Practices for Welding Inspectors- Latest 22 Question and Answers

1.

The welding inspector is exposed to which of the following safety hazards:

 
 
 
 
 

2.

A document which covers safety in welding and cutting is:

 
 
 
 

3.

The most important component of an effective safety and health program is:

 
 
 
 

4.

Safety training is mandated under provisions of:

e. none of the above

 
 
 
 

5.

The abbreviation ‘MSDS’ means:

 
 
 
 

6.

The abbreviation ‘TLV’ means:

 
 
 
 

7.

Employers must make all applicable MSDS data available to their employees.

 
 

8.

Personnel must be trained to recognize safety hazards.

 
 

9.

A ‘Hot Work Permit’ is required for:

 
 
 
 

10.

Eye hazards found in welding operations include:

 
 
 
 

11.

Protective equipment not suitable for eye protection from welding radiation includes:

e. properly positioned barricades

 
 
 
 

12.

Suitable clothing materials for welding and cutting are:

 
 
 
 

13.

Before working on equipment where machinery guards have been removed, a ‘Lock, Tag, and Try’ procedure should be completed.

 
 

14.

In avoiding fumes during welding, the most important factor is:

 
 
 
 

15.

It is not important to consider ventilation during welding and cutting operations.

 
 

16.

When entering confined spaces, a ‘standby’ is not required.

 
 

17.

Some of the toxic materials the welder may be exposed to are:

 
 
 
 
 

18.

Proper usage and handling of compressed gas cylinders include:

 
 
 
 
 

19.

Acetylene becomes unstable above what pressure?

 
 
 
 

20.

Oxygen is a flammable gas.

 
 

21.

Electric currents above approximately 6 milliamperes are considered:

 
 
 
 
 

22.

When operating gas cylinders, the primary valve should be opened:

 
 
 
 
 


 

Click Here To Take The Next WIT Chapter 3>>

99% Passing Guarantee- If you Want to Purchase a Full AWS CWI Course Study Material Please Contact us.
AWS CWI Part A – WIT Welding Inspection Technology Chapter 2- Safe Practices for Welding Inspectors- Latest 22 Question and Answers

#CertifiedWeldingInspectors
#CwiPartA
#WIT

For business inquiries: upweld.org@gmail.com
Follow us on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/UpWeld/
Follow us on Twitter https://twitter.com/upweldorg

cwi exam questions and answers
welding exam questions,
questions and answers for the cwi exam,
cwi practice questions,
aws cwi practice test,
aws cwi study material,
WIT Welding Inspection Technology Chapter 2
AWS Welding Inspection Technology
WIT-T:2008 Welding inspection technology
Welding Inspection Technology Workbook Fifth Edition
Part A- Welding Inspection Technology
Aws Welding Inspection Technology Workbook Pdf
AWS-Certified Welding Inspector Training
Welding Inspection Personnel
Welding Inspection Training Courses
welding inspection technology 2008 pdf
welding inspection technology pdf free download
welding inspection technology audiobook
welding inspection technology 2020
cwb modules pdf
welding inspection handbook pdf
aws cwi book pdf
Safe Practices for Welding Inspector Questions and Answers
QC Welding Inspector Interview Questions
AWS CWI Questions and Answers (Module 2)
Welding Safety Test Questions And Answers
Module 2 AWS CWI QUESTIONS ANSWERS
Interview Questions and Answers – AWS-CWI Certification
CSWIP 3.1 Certification Exam Sample Test
Welding Inspector Interview Questions
Aws Cwi Questions And Answers
welding inspection questions and answers pdf
welding exam questions pdf
cwi exam questions and answers pdf
questions and answers for the cwi exam pdf
aws cwi study material pdf
cwi practice questions
qc welding inspector interview pdf

Free AWS CWI Part C – Practice Tests- Training Exam Questions and Answers

AWS CWI Part C (API 1104) Practice Tests

API 1104 Study Guide Mat erial Questions And Answers – CWI Practice Tests And Exam Question Package For API 1104, 13 Lessons And Quizzes Plus Over 400 Questions On The API 1104 Built Into Interactive Question Banks And Simulated/Timed Exams

How to Prepare for the AWS CWI Certified Welding Inspector Exam Part C?

Here you can prepare online free all 13 Section of AWS CWI Part C Exam

AWS CWI test Part C is an open book Exam that establishes the Candidates ability to locate and understand information in a code book. While American Welding Society currently provides training for only the D1.1 and API1104 Part C exams, Candidates can also sign up to take the code book exam utilizing AWS D1.2/D1.2M Aluminum D1.5M/D1.5 Bridge Welding Code AWS D15.1 Railroad Welding Code ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sections VIII and IX, or ASME Section IX, B31.1, and B31.3. In 2014, American Welding Society will begin providing online training for some of these code clinic exams.

AWS CWI Part C exam contains a minimum of 46 questions that must be answered in a 2 hour timeframe. In a best case scenario, Candidates will have a little over 2 and a half minutes to answer each question. As with Part A and Part B, Candidates will need to score at least a 72% in order to pass Part C of the exam.

AWS-CWI Part C Codebook Examination Questions and Answers

Need to pass AWS CWI Part C Exam? This online AWS CWI Part C training course gives you everything you need including a timed practice test.

Pass your AWS CWI Part C API 1104 exam on the first try with the CWI part C Practice Tests and Exam Questions.
Our AWS CWI Part C exam training course is fully online. You don’t have to travel anywhere. You can take the course from your home or anywhere that has an internet connection.

We offer AWS CWI training for API 1104 codebooks:

Practice our latest AWS CWI exam questions and answers for AWS Certified Welding Inspector CWI Part C examination to help you pass the exam. These online quiz will also help to boost your confidence, provide you an opportunity to practice free of cost the AWS CWI exam questions.

Practice with full quiz course without adding any pause to have a confidence like the real exam. Build your confidence as you study the AWS CWI Part C exam study material.

Click On The Below links To Practice Free AWS CWI Part C Full Mock Test Examinations With Questions And Answers:

AWS CWI Part C (API 1104) Full Course Descriptions:

AWS CWI Part C
AWS CWI Part C

Section 1: Scope

Quiz- Section 1 Scope – CWI Part C- 6 Questions

Click here to Start Course- Section 1.Scope

Section 2: Normative References

Quiz -Section 2 Normative References – CWI Part C -7 Questions

Click here to Start Course- Section 2. Normative References

Section 3: Terms, Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations

Quiz -Section 3 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations – CWI Part C -7 Questions

Click here to Start Course-Section 3: Terms, Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations

Section 4: Specifications

Quiz- Section 4: Specifications – CWI Part C -7 Questions

Click here to Start Course-Section 4: Specifications

Section 5: Qualification of Welding Procedures with Filler Metal Additions

Quiz- Section 5 Qualification of Welding Procedures with Filler Metal Additions – CWI Part- 11 Questions

Click here to Start Course-Section 5: Qualification of Welding Procedures with Filler Metal Additions

Section 6: Qualification of Welders

Quiz – Section 6 Qualification of Welders – CWI Part C- 8 Questions

Click here to Start Course-Section 6: Qualification of Welders

Section 7: Design and Preparation of a Joint for Production Welding

Quiz- Section 7 Design and Preparation of a Joint for Production Welding – CWI Part C- 7 Questions

Click here to Start Course-Section 7: Design and Preparation of a Joint for Production Welding

Section 8: Inspection and Testing of Production Welds

Quiz – Section 8 Inspection and Testing of Production Welds- CWI Part C- 7 Questions

Click here to Start Course-Section 8: Inspection and Testing of Production Welds

Section 9: Acceptance Standards for NDT

Quiz- Section 9 Acceptance Standards for NDT – CWI Part C- 10 Questions

Click here to Start Course-Section 9: Acceptance Standards for NDT

Section 10: Repair and Removal of Weld Defects

Quiz- Section 10 Repair and Removal of Weld Defects- CWI Part C- 5 Questions

Click here to Start Course-Section 10: Repair and Removal of Weld Defects

Section 11: Procedures for NDT

Quiz – Section 11 Procedures for Nondestructive Testing (NDT)- CWI Part C- 10 Questions

Click here to Start Course-Section 11: Procedures for Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

Section 12: Mechanized Welding with Filler Metal Additions

Quiz- Section 12 Mechanized Welding with Filler Metal Additions- CWI Part C- 5 Questions

Click here to Start Course-Section 12: Mechanized Welding with Filler Metal Additions

Section 13: Automatic Welding Without Filler Metal Additions

Quiz- Section 13 Automatic Welding Without Filler Metal Additions- CWI Part C -10 Questions

Click here to Start Course-Section 13: Automatic Welding Without Filler Metal Additions

Annex A Alternative Acceptance Standards for Girth Welds

Quiz- Annex A Alternative Acceptance Standards for Girth Welds- CWI Part C- 10 Questions

Click here to Start Course- Annex A Alternative Acceptance Standards for Girth Welds

Annex B In-service Welding

Quiz- Annex B In-service Welding- CWI Part C- 9 Questions

Click here to Start Course –Annex B In-service Welding

Annex B In-service Welding- CWI Part C

Please go to Annex B In-service Welding- CWI Part C to view the test

Read Carefully and Take Test

Annex B: In-service Welding

B.1 General

This annex provides welding practices for making repairs to and installing appurtenances on piping systems that are in service. Of particular importance are the welds that melt into the carrier pipe since they cool at an accelerated rate due to the quenching effect of the fluid flowing through the carrier pipe.

The welds that melt into the carrier pipe are either fillet welds or branch connection welds. Fillet welds are used to join the ends of encirclement sleeves to the carrier pipe. These fillet welds are also referred to as “sleeve welds” and “circumferential welds.” Groove welds are used to join split sleeves using longitudinal welds, but these, unlike sleeve welds and branch connection welds, do not melt into the carrier pipe.

Welding attachments onto in-service pipelines pose two major risks: (1 ) burning through the pipe wall and (2) hydrogen cracking. Burning through the pipe wall is unlikely when the wall thickness is 0.250 inches or greater, although many companies successfully weld onto thinner wall pipe with regularity. Although Annex B explains how to prevent both of these problems, the major focus of Annex B is on the prevention of hydrogen cracking.

For hydrogen cracking to occur, three conditions must be satisfied simultaneously:

(1 ) Hydrogen in the weld,

(2) A crack susceptible microstructure, and

(3) Tensile stress acting on the weld. Conversely, to prevent hydrogen cracking, one of these must be reduced or eliminated. Since these welds are made on pipelines that have been in service, hydrogen is always present and cannot be reduced to sufficient levels. In addition, residual tensile stresses are present in every weld due to the inherent shrinkage resulting from solidification and subsequent cooling from high temperatures. As a result, the primary technique used to prevent hydrogen cracking in in-service welds is the prevention of a crack-sensitive microstructure.

To make matters worse, in-service welds are made onto pipe carrying flowing fluids which accelerate the cooling rate and, therefore, promote the formation of crack-sensitive phases in steels, particularly martensite. Because of this combination of factors, the most effective approach for preventing hydrogen cracking in in-service welds is the use of a welding procedure that has a high enough heat input to overcome the quenching effects of the fluids flowing through the carrier pipe. As an alternative, temper bead welding sequences are also effective at producing multi-pass welds in which the heat-affected zone in the carrier pipe has a tempered microstructure, known to be more resistant to
hydrogen cracking.

B.2 Qualification of In-service Welding Procedures

This subsection lists the essential variables and tests required to qualify in-service welding procedures.

Paragraph B.2.1 refers the reader to Section 5 for the basic requirements for qualifying welding procedures for making fillet welds and states that the requirements and exceptions in this annex will then be added to those requirements.

Paragraph B.2.2 lists the additional information required to be addressed on the procedure specification. One of these variables is the carbon equivalent of the carrier pipe to be welded. For determining the carbon equivalent, the following equation is provided:

CEIIW = %C + %Mn/6 + (%Cu + %Ni)/1 5 + (%Cr + %Mo + %V)/5

Also included here is the provision that carbon equivalents may be grouped for the purposes of procedure qualification, as will be discussed shortly.

The pipeline operating conditions must also be addressed on the procedure specification. This can be addressed by specifying the fluid type and its flow rate. Again, conditions may be grouped.

For procedures designed to overcome the quenching effect of the flowing contents by using a sufficiently high heat input, the heat input range should be specified. The minimum value of this range should be that used to weld the procedure qualification coupon. Heat input is given in the Note as Heat Input = Amps x Volts x 60 / Travel Speed.

For procedures designed to overcome the quenching effect of the flowing contents by using a temper bead sequence, the weld deposition sequence, including bead size and overlap, should be specified. The required heat input range for each temper bead layer should also be specified on a temper bead procedure specification.

Paragraph B.2.3 lists additions and changes to the essential variable rules specified in Section 5. For in-service welds, specified minimum yield strength is no longer an essential variable, meaning that in-service welding procedures are valid for all pipe grades. However, since hydrogen cracking is more likely on pipe materials having greater hardenability (as measured by the carbon equivalent), an increase in the carbon equivalent over that used to qualify the procedure is now an essential variable. So, for in-service welds, the MTR of the carrier pipe to be welded should be available so that the carbon equivalent can be calculated from the listed composition. When the in-service welding procedure is qualified, the carrier pipe used in the test coupon should have a carbon equivalent no less than that of the production carrier pipe. Ideally, the carrier pipe used for the qualification test should have a very high carbon equivalent. In that case, the in-service welding procedure would be qualified for a large range of carbon equivalents, up to and including that used in the qualification test weld.

For in-service fillet and branch welds, pipe wall thickness is no longer an essential variable, so these procedures are qualified for all wall thicknesses; however, the note in paragraph B.2.3.1 .3 provides an exception, which states that, for weld deposit repairs, the welding procedure is qualified only for wall thicknesses equal to or greater than that used in the qualification test.

Finally, for in-service welds, pipeline operating conditions are an important essential variable, with an increase in the severity of the conditions being a cause for requalification. So, the procedure should be qualified under the most severe quenching conditions. This can be accomplished by making the test weld on the water canister set up at a 45 ° angle as shown in Figure B.2 on page 1 05. By implication, this variable rule also suggests that the use of a heat input value less than that used to qualify a “heat input the procedure” is also an essential variable and would require the requalification of the procedure. By the same logic, paragraph B.2.3.1 .4 states that, for a temper bead procedure, a change in the deposition sequence or the bead spacing (or overlap) from that qualified is also an essential variable and would require requalification of the procedure.

Paragraph B.2.4 addresses the welding of the test joints and refers to Figure B.2 on page 1 05 showing the carrier pipe coupon filled with flowing water with the sleeve being welded to it using fillet welds or branch connection welds as appropriate. This condition has been shown to produce thermal conditions more severe than typical in-service welding applications. Therefore, a procedure qualified under this condition qualifies for all in-service conditions.

Paragraph B.2.5 addresses the testing of the welded joints. In general, in-service welds that melt into the carrier pipe, including repairs to weld depositions, will be tested using the nick break tests described in subsection 5.8, except that the test locations are shown in Figures B.3 and B.4 on pages 107 and 108, respectively, and the number of specimens required is specified in Table B.1 on page 109. The additional tests required in this table are macro section tests, detailed in paragraph B.2.5.4, and face bend tests, detailed in paragraph B.2.5.5, and both are described below.

Longitudinal seam welds of full-encirclement sleeves should be tested with the tension tests, bend tests, and nick break specimens required in subsection 5.6, as a function of sleeve wall thickness and diameter. Branch and sleeve welds should be tested with the nick break tests in Section 5.8 plus the additional required tests in B.2.5.1.

Paragraph B.2.5.4 gives details about the macro section tests to be removed from the in-service branch and sleeve welds. These are shown schematically in Figure B.5 on page 1 09. They may be machine-cut or oxygen cut oversized.

When they are oxygen cut, the oxygen-cut surface must be machined by a non-thermal process to remove at least ¼ inch from the side to be examined. These weld cross-sections shall then be ground, polished, etched with a suitable etchant, and examined visually without dye penetrants and with little or no magnification (typically at 1 0X or less).

Two of the four micro etch specimens for branch and sleeve welds and both of the specimens for weld deposition repair shall be examined by hardness testing in accordance with ASTM E384. At least five indentations shall be made in the coarse-grained HAZ at the toe of each weld cross-section using a Vickers indenter and a 1 0 kg load to determine the maximum hardness.

Paragraph B.2.5.4.4 gives the requirements for visual examination of each micro etch specimen:

(a) The weld should show complete fusion at the root of the joint.
(b) The weld must be free from cracks.
(c) The legs of the fillet welds must meet the requirements of the procedure specification.
(d) The fillet weld surface (convexity and concavity) must be fat within +/- 1 /1 6 inches.
(e) The undercut depth should not exceed the lesser of 1 /32 inch or 1 2.5% of the pipe wall thickness.
(f) Heat-affected zone (HAZ) hardness values over 350 HV should be evaluated to determine the risk of hydrogen cracking

Paragraph B.2.5.5 describes the face bend specimens that are required. Specific specimens may be cut for these tests or the remaining portion of the nick break specimens can be used. Both options are shown in Figure B.6 on page 110. They may be machine-cut or oxygen cut oversized. When they are oxygen cut, they must be machined by a nonthermal process to remove at least 1 /8 inch from each side. When remnants of the sleeve or branch welds are used, the sleeve and branch welds must be removed to, but not below, the surface of the sleeve. Undercut should not be removed.

Paragraph B.2.5.5.2 addresses the method of bending the specimens. This is identical to the requirements in paragraph 5.6.4.2 except that the specimens shall not be tested sooner than 24 hours after welding.

The acceptance criteria for these bend specimens is exactly the same as that found in paragraph 5.6.4.

B.3 In-service Welder Qualification

Paragraph B.3.1 requires welders performing in-service welding to qualify by making a single qualification test weld in accordance with subsection 6.2 using the specific procedure (heat input or temper bead) used to overcome the quenching effects of the fluid flowing through the pipeline. A welder with only that qualification is qualified for in-service welding in accordance with the essential variable limits of subsection 6.2. However, this annex modifies those qualification ranges as explained in the next few paragraphs.

If that qualification test is welded on pipe less than 1 2.750 inches in OD, the welder is qualified for diameters up to and including the diameter on which he tested. If that qualification test is welded on pipe 1 2.750 inches in OD or larger, the welder is qualified to weld all pipe diameters.

A welder who meets both the multiple qualification requirements of subsection 6.3 and the additional qualification test of this annex is qualified as an in-service branch or sleeve welder in accordance with the essential variable rules of subsection 6.3. Welders who perform weld deposition repairs are limited based on the positions in which they perform the test welds.

Paragraph B.3.2 states that the qualification test required by this annex should be welded on a coupon that simulates the ability of the flowing contents to remove heat from the pipe during welding. Similar to the weld coupon required for the procedure qualification test, falling the carrier pipe with flowing water during welding should produce conditions equal to or more severe than typical in-service conditions.

Welders qualified on such a coupon are therefore qualified for all typical in-service applications. The coupon should also be welded following either the heat input, temper bead, or weld deposition repair welding procedure, as applicable.

Paragraph B.3.3 requires the test coupon to meet the visual inspection requirements of subsection 6.4 and the mechanical testing requirements of subsection 6.5. For longitudinal seam welds in full encirclement sleeves, the type and number of test specimens required for welder qualification are listed in Table B.2 on page 1 1 1.

Paragraph B.3.4 requires that records of these qualifications be maintained.

B.4 Suggested In-service Welding Practices

When making actual in-service welds, the requirements of Section 7 apply, except for the alternative or additional requirements of subsection B.4. Paragraph B.4.1 reminds the reader that safety is the primary concern when welding onto these in-service lines. Factors such as operating pressure, flow conditions, and minimum wall thickness in the area to be welded should be considered. Ultrasonic testing of the pipe wall in the area to be welded is commonly used to determine minimum wall thickness and/or to verify that there are no laminations in the pipe wall that could compromise in-service weld quality or pressure integrity. Additional safety precautions can be found in API’s Recommended Practice 2201.

Paragraph B.4.2 addresses important alignment and ft.-up issues. For saddle and sleeve welds, the gap between the sleeve and the carrier pipe should be minimized to permit easy fusion of the carrier pipe. Weld metal build-up on the carrier pipe is one way to minimize any gap that might be present. Clamping devices are recommended. For longitudinal butt welds of full encirclement sleeves, the root opening should be sufficient to permit full penetration. Use of a mild steel backup strip or suitable tape may be necessary to prevent penetration into the carrier pipe.

Recommended welding sequences, sleeve designs, and geometries are provided in paragraph B.4.3 and shown graphically in Figures B.7 through B.12 on pages 112 through 115. For full encirclement sleeves requiring circumferential fillet welds, the longitudinal seams should be completed before beginning the sleeve welds to minimize the residual stresses on the sleeve welds. When making the circumferential fillet welds, one sleeve weld should be completely welded before beginning the other.

Regardless of the type of fitting used, the welding sequence should always be chosen to minimize residual stresses. Heat input limits and/or temper bead sizes and locations as specified in the welding procedure must be followed.

Paragraph B.4.4 recommends that in-service beads should be deposited in the circumferential direction when possible.

B.5 Inspection and Testing of In-service Welds

In-service welds must meet the acceptance criteria of Section 8 except for the additional or alternative requirements in subsection B.5. Since hydrogen cracking is the primary weld quality concern and most hydrogen cracks are located under the weld bead and do not break the surface, the inspection method must be able to detect under bead and toe cracks. A combination of magnetic particle and ultrasonic testing is recommended for inspecting sleeve-to-saddle and branch-to-carrier pipe welds. Radiographic testing is not a good candidate for detecting these types of cracks.

Since it takes time for hydrogen trapped in the weld to diffuse to the coarse-grained region of the HAZ to cause the cracking, it is important to establish a suitable delay time after welding prior to the inspection to ensure that inspection is conducted after the cracking has had adequate time to develop.

B.6 Standards of Acceptability: NDT (Including Visual)

The standards of acceptability in Section 9 apply to imperfections located in in-service welds. For weld deposition repair, the weld length is defined as the maximum weld length in the direction in which the flaw is oriented.

B.7 Repair and Removal of Defects

The requirements in Section 1 0 apply to the repair and removal of defects found in in-service welds. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that excavation of the defect does not reduce the wall thickness of the pipe to less than that required to contain the pipe’s operating pressure.

Here You Can Take Full Course of AWS CWI Part C 

Section 12 Mechanized Welding with Filler Metal Additions

Please go to Section 12 Mechanized Welding with Filler Metal Additions to view the test

Read Carefully and Take a Test

Section 12: Mechanized Welding with Filler Metal Additions

Section 12 provides the rules for qualifying welding procedures and personnel for mechanized welding with filler metal additions. It further addresses production welding along with inspection and NDT of production welds..

12.1 Acceptable Processes

Mechanized welding shall be performed using one or more of the following processes:

(a) Submerged arc welding (SAW).
(b) Gas metal arc welding (GMAW).
(c) Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW).
(d) Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with or without external shielding gas.
(e) Plasma arc welding (PAW).
(f) Any of the above processes combined with a manual or semiautomatic process.

12.2 Procedure Qualifications

The rules in Section 1 2 are basically identical to those in Section 5 with a few additions and exceptions. Only the differences from Section 5 will be discussed here.

The quality of test welds shall be determined by both destructive testing and non-destructive testing and shall meet the requirements of subsection 5.6, except that nick break tests are not required, and Section 9. The use of nondestructive testing is in addition to the destructive tests required in Section 5.

12.3 Record

Identical to Section 5, this subsection refers the reader to Figures 1 and 2 on pages 1 0 and 1 1 for recommended forms that can be used to document a welding procedure specification and the record of the procedure qualification test coupon, respectively. The record of the procedure qualification must be maintained as long as the welding procedure specification is in use.

2.4 Welding Procedure Specification

Subsection 1 2.4 lists the variables required to be recorded on a welding procedure specification for mechanized welding. The list is the same as that in subsection 5.3, with the following additions and exceptions:

(a) This section does not provide suggested groupings for diameters or wall thicknesses.
(b) Paragraph 1 2.4.2.1 requires the welding procedure specification to include a description of the equipment to be used.
(c) Paragraph 1 2.4.2.4 requires that the welding machine used for each bead be recorded on the welding procedure specification.
(d) Flame characteristics are not listed in subsection 1 2.4 because oxyfuel welding cannot be mechanized.
(e) The minimum percentage of root bead welding that must be completed before a lineup clamp can be removed is not listed in paragraph 1 2.4.2.1 1.
(f) Paragraph 1 2.4.2.1 2 includes the requirements for joint end and inter pass cleaning but does not require that the type of cleaning tools (power or hand) be specified on the welding procedure specification.
(g) Paragraphs 1 2.4.2.1 3 and 1 2.4.2.1 4 require the width of material to be heated during preheating and PWHT to be specified on the welding procedure specification.
(h) Paragraph 1 2.4.2.1 9 requires the welding procedure specification to list any other important factors necessary to produce a good weld and gives examples.

2.5 Essential Variables

Subsection 1 2.5 lists the essential variables for the qualification of welding procedures using mechanized welding processes. This list is essentially the same as that in subsection 5.4 with the following additions and exceptions:

(a) Paragraph 1 2.5.2.3 adds that any change to the root spacing, root face, or angle of bevel to a value not specified on the welding procedure specification is an essential variable.
(b) Paragraph 1 2.5.2.4 adds that any change in wall thickness beyond the range listed in the welding procedure specification is an essential variable.
(c) Paragraph 1 2.5.2.5 adds that any change in specified pipe OD beyond the range listed in the welding procedure specification is an essential variable.
(d) Paragraph 1 2.5.2.7 adds that a change in the size of the filler metal wire is an essential variable.
(e) Change in welding position is NOT an essential variable.
(f) Paragraph 1 2.5.2.1 0 specifies that a change in the range of flow rates established for the shielding gas is an essential variable (whereas subsection 5.4 addresses a specific percentage change).
(g) Paragraph 1 2.5.2.1 6 adds that, for plasma arc welding, any change in the orifice gas nominal composition or change in the orifice diameter is an essential variable.

12.6 Qualifications of Welding Equipment and Operators

This subsection lists the essential variables and the tests required to qualify the welding operators.

Paragraph 1 2.6.1 provides the general rules applicable to welding operator qualification. Similar to Section 6, welding operators shall be qualified by welding a test coupon which shall be tested either by destructive methods or nondestructive methods, or both and shall meet the requirements of subsection 6.4 (visual examination) and either 6.5 (mechanical testing) or 6.6 (radiographic testing), except that nick break tests are not required. When required, tensile strength tests may NOT be omitted in lieu of nick break tests. In addition, welding operators shall be qualified on the type of equipment to be used in production welding.

Paragraph 1 2.6.2 lists the essential variables for welding operator qualification. They are:
(a) A change from one welding process, mode of transfer, polarity, or method of application to another.
(b) A change in the direction of welding from vertical uphill to downhill or vice versa.
(c) A change in the filler metal type (solid wire, metal-cored, flux-cored, etc. ).
(d) A change from one specified OD group to another where the OD groups are defined as:
1 ) OD less than 1 2.75 inches.
2) OD equal to or greater than 1 2.75 inches.
(e) An increase in wall thickness over that welded during the qualification test.
(f) A change in position from that qualified (a change from rolled to fixed or a change from vertical to horizontal). A welding operator who qualifies in the fixed position shall also be qualified to perform welds in the rolled position.

(g) A change in welding bug manufacturer or model.
(h) A change in the method of applying the root bead (e.g., external root versus internal root).
(i) A major change in joint design (e.g. from a V-groove to a U-groove) or any change beyond the range established for root spacing, root face, or angle of the bevel.
(j) At the option of the company, welding operators whose work is limited to specific passes in a multi-pass butt weld may qualify by depositing only those passes in a joint, with other passes necessary to complete the joint being wielded by others.

2.7 Records of Qualified Operators

A record shall be made of the tests and results required by subsection 1 2.6. A form similar to that shown in Figure 2 on page 1 1 should be used, but any form is suitable as long as it records all of the required information. A list of qualified operators and the procedures for which they are qualified shall be maintained. An operator may be required to requalify if a question arises about his competence.

12.8 Inspection and Testing of Production Welds

Production welds shall be inspected and tested in accordance with Section 8.

12.9 Acceptance Standards for NDT

Acceptance criteria for production welds shall be those found in Section 9 or, at the company’s option, Annex A.

12.1 0 Repair and Removal of Defects

Repair and removal of defects shall be in accordance with Section 10.

12.1 1 Radiographic Testing

Radiographic testing procedures shall be in accordance with subsection 1 1 .1.

12.1 2 Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic testing procedures shall be in accordance with subsection 1 1 .4.

Click here to Start Course-Section 13: Automatic Welding Without Filler Metal Additions

Section 10 Repair and Removal of Weld Defects- CWI Part C

Please go to Section 10 Repair and Removal of Weld Defects- CWI Part C to view the test

Read Carefully and Take a Test

Section 1 0: Repair and Removal of Weld Defects

0.1 General

Paragraph 1 0.1 states that weld defects may be identified at any time.

1 0.2 Authorization for Repair

Paragraph 1 0.2.1 states that company authorization is required for crack repairs, back weld repairs, and double repairs. Company authorization is not required for any repair that does not require the application of heat or weld metal, such as grinding or fling.

Paragraph 1 0.2.2 gives the conditions under which company-authorized repairs can be made to cracked welds. In general, if the length to be repaired is less than 8 % of the weld length, the repair is permitted if a qualified repair procedure is used.

Paragraph 1 0.2.3 addresses repair of defects other than cracks and states that these defects in the root, filler and finish beads may be repaired with prior company authorization. A qualified repair procedure is required for repair welds when using a welding process, method of application, or filler metal different than that used for the original weld, or when repairs are made in a previously repaired area, or when required by the company.

Paragraph 1 0.2.4 permits the use of grinding to remove defects in the reinforcement of root beads and cover passes, as long as contour, minimum wall, and weld thickness requirements are not violated.

Paragraph 1 0.2.5 permits the repair of back welds as long as a qualified repair welding procedure is used and the company permits the repair.

Paragraph 1 0.2.6 requires prior company authorization for double repairs. Further repair of a double repair is only permitted with company authorization and when the repair procedure to be used has been qualified by replicating the number of thermal cycles that the pipe will have seen after the repair.

Paragraph 1 0.2.7 places limits on the lengths of repairs. For pipes having a specified OD of 2.375 inches and greater, the limit on the length of repairs shall be established by the company. For pipes having a specified OD of less than 2.375 inches, all repairs require prior company authorization.

Paragraph 1 0.2.8 establishes a minimum required repair length of 2 inches unless the company
authorizes a shorter repair.

1 0.3 Repair Procedure

This section provides detailed requirements for qualifying repair welding procedures. Repairs are categorized as full-thickness repairs, internal partial-thickness repairs, external partial-thickness repairs, cover pass repairs, or back weld repairs, and the type and number of test specimens required for each type of repair procedure are given in Table 5 on page 49, with detailed instructions in paragraph 1 0.3.3. The tests required are fewer in number to, and different than, the tests required to qualify a butt weld procedure in Table 2. This table adds macro sections and hardness tests for all of the repair procedures but Charpy impact specimens are only required if the original production welding procedure was qualified with Charpy impact tests and when specified by the company.

Paragraph 1 0.3.4 lists the information required to be on a repair welding procedure and includes:

(a) Location and method for exploration of the defect.
(b) Method of defect removal and subsequent inspection for verification of removal.
(c) Requirements for preheating and inter-pass temperature.
(d) Welding processes and all of the other specification information required in paragraph 5.3.2.
(e) Requirements for inter pass NDT, if applicable.
(f) Methods for filler metal control or storage, including electrodes, fluxes, and/or shielding gases
when hydrogen control is recommended by the manufacturer.
(g) Repair type and procedure limitations.
(h) Time delay before final inspection, when required.

Paragraph 1 0.3.5 adds three new essential variables to the list in paragraph 5.4.2: (1 ) the location of excavation in paragraph 1 0.3.5.2, (2) type of repair in paragraph 1 0.3.5.3, and (3) the preheat and inter pass temperature in paragraph 1 0.3.5.4

Paragraph 1 0.3.6 addresses the welding of the test joint and specifies a minimum length of 8 inches. In addition, multiple repair procedures may be qualified in a single test joint.

Paragraph 1 0.3.7 addresses the testing of the weld joints and provides specific requirements for visual examination and the hardness tests to be conducted on the macro sections. Hardness tests are required for both the deposited weld metal and the heat-affected zones of the macro sections at the locations specified in Figures 21 through 26 on pages 51 through 53, depending on the type of repair. Hardness tests shall be conducted per ASTM E384 using a Vickers indenter and a 1 0 kg load. Maximum hardness values shall not exceed those listed in Table 6 on page 54, but the company can specify other maximum hardness values if they choose to do so. When hardness testing is required, chemical analysis is also necessary to determine the carbon equivalent of the base metal.

Charpy impact testing shall also be performed when the production welding procedure was qualified by Charpy impact tests and shall be performed at locations specified by the company. The company shall specify the minimum design temperature at which the specimens shall be tested and the minimum required absorbed energy for those tests.

1 0.4 Repair Welder Qualification

This subsection lists the rules for qualifying welders who perform repair welds. Welders performing repair welds must have an existing qualification to subsections 6.2 or 6.3 in addition to the requirements in this subsection. The welder must then make an additional qualification weld using the applicable repair welding procedure and the number and type of test specimens required are provided in Table 7 on page 54 for the specific type of repair welding procedure.

Paragraph 1 0.4.3 gives the changes in essential variables that would require the requalification of repair welders. They are:
(a) Any change from one repair type to another except qualification on a full-thickness repair qualifies all partial-thickness repairs.
(b) A change in filler metal groups as defined in Table 1.
(c) An increase in depth of the repair area greater than twice that deposited in the qualification weldment.
(d) A change in position from that for which the repair welder has already qualified.

1 0.5 Supervision

Repair welds shall be made under the supervision of an individual experienced in repairs who is acceptable to the company. Inspection of repairs and the qualification of those conducting the inspections shall be as specified by the company. Repairs shall be documented and the records maintained by the company.

1 0.6 Acceptance Criteria

Repaired areas shall be inspected by and evaluated in accordance with the same NDT methods and acceptance criteria as used for the original weld. NDT of a repair weld must include the entire length of the repair plus the greater of 2 inches or 1 0 % of the repaired length on both ends of the repair.

Click here to Start Course-Section 11: Procedures for Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

Section 6 Qualification of Welders – CWI Part C

Please go to Section 6 Qualification of Welders – CWI Part C to view the test

Read Carefully and Take a Test

Section 6: Qualification of Welders

6.1 General

The purpose of welder qualification is to prove the welder’s ability to make sound welds using qualified procedures. Welders must qualify by testing before they perform any production welding. A welder who satisfactorily completes a welding procedure qualification test is also qualified as long as all of the test specimens required by subsection 6.5 are successfully tested. These standards also require qualification to be conducted in the presence of a representative acceptable to the company.

The essential variables for welder qualification are different than the essential variables for procedure qualification. The essential variables for welder qualification are listed in paragraphs 6.2.2 and 6.3.2 and will be discussed in detail below.

There are two options for qualifying welders: (1 ) a single qualification and (2) multiple qualifications.
The multiple qualifications qualify the welder for the widest range of variables and is generally preferred.

6.2 Single Qualification

Single qualification requires separate qualification tests for fillet and groove welds. Note that a fillet weld qualification will qualify for welding both socket welds and branch connection welds. However, butt welds do not always qualify the welder to make fillet welds in API 1104.

Paragraph 6.2.1 describes the requirements for the single qualification. In this test, the welder qualifying to make butt welds will make a butt weld in either the fixed or rolled position with the axis of the pipe either horizontal, vertical, or inclined from horizontal at an angle of no more than 45 degrees. The welder qualifying to make branch connections or fillet welds will make a branch or socket connection weld in the position and orientation specified by the welding procedure. The test welds shall meet the requirements of subsection 6.4 (visual examination) and either subsection 6.5 (destructive testing) or 6.6 (nondestructive testing for butt welds only).

Paragraph 6.2.2 is entitled “Scope,” but it really just lists the essential variables for the single qualification of welders. The welder who has completed the single qualification test must requalify if he changes any variables outside the following ranges:

(a) A change in the welding process or combination of welding processes (with the exception that a welder qualified separately for each process used in the combination is also qualified to use the processes in combination).
(b) A change in the direction of welding from uphill to downhill or vice versa.
(c) A change in filler metal classification from Group No. 1 or Group No. 2 to any other group or from any Group No. 9 filler metal to a Group No. 1 or Group No. 2 filler metal. Note that this implies that a welder qualified for SMAW may switch between Group No. 1 electrodes (E601 0, E6011, E701 0, and E701 1 ) and Group No. 2 electrodes (E801 0, E801 1, and E901 0) without having to requalify. However, if a welder qualifies for SMAW using a low-hydrogen electrode (Group No. 3), he must requalify to weld using an E601 0 electrode (Group No. 1 ). In addition, each filler metal classification not listed in Table 1 requires a separate qualification.
(d) A change from one OD group to another (note that OD group was NOT an essential variable for the qualification of welding procedures).
(e) A change from one wall thickness group to another.
(f) A change in position with the following exceptions: a welder who qualifies for fixed (position) welding is also qualified to perform roll welding; a welder who qualifies for making butt welds is also qualified to make lap fillet welds (socket welds), but NOT branch connection welds; a welder who qualifies by making a butt weld in the fixed position at a 45 ° angle is qualified to make butt welds and lap fillet welds (but NOT branch connection welds) in all positions.
(g) A change in the joint design, such as the deletion of a backing strip or a change in edge preparation from a V bevel (i.e. V groove) to a U bevel (i.e. U groove), although this variable is rather
vague.

6.3 Multiple Qualification

Multiple qualifications qualify a welder to weld in all positions, on all wall thicknesses, joint designs, and fittings. However, the widest range of pipe diameters qualified depends on the diameters he welded during the test.

Paragraph 6.3.1 describes the requirements for the multiple qualifications, which require the welder to complete two test weld joints. They are:

(a) A butt weld in the fixed position with the axis of the pipe either horizontal or inclined from horizontal at an angle of no more than 45 degrees. The weld shall be made on pipe with a minimum outside diameter of 6.625 inches and a minimum wall thickness of 0.250 inches. The weld is also required to be welded without a backing strip.

The weld must meet the requirements of API 1 1 04 subsection 6.4 (visual examination) and either subsection 6.5 (destructive testing) or 6.6 (nondestructive testing).

(b) A branch-on-pipe connection weld, for which the welder is required to layout, cut, fit, and weld two pipes of equal diameter together in the form of a T (see Study Guide Figure 5.1 ). The weld shall be made with the axis of the run pipe horizontal and with the branch connection extending vertically down, such that the weld is made in the overhead position.

In addition to the workmanship requirements of paragraph 6.3.1, four nick break specimens shall be removed from the weld as shown in Figure 1 0 and they must also meet the nick break test requirements of subsection 5.8.3.

Paragraph 6.3.2 describes the essential variable rules for multiple qualifications. A welder who successfully completes the butt weld test on pipe 1 2.750 inches in diameter or larger and the branch connection weld on pipes 1 2.750 inch in diameter or larger is qualified to weld in all positions, on all wall thicknesses, joint designs, fittings, and on all pipe diameters. Successful testing on pipes smaller than 1 2.750 inches in diameter qualifies for welding in all positions, on all wall thicknesses, joint designs, fittings, and on all pipe diameters equal to or less than that on which he tested.

A welder holding multiple qualifications shall be required to be requalified if any of the following are changed:

(a) A change from one welding process to another process or combination of processes (aging with the exception that a welder qualified separately for each process used in the combination is also qualified to use the processes in combination).
(b) A change in the direction of welding from uphill to downhill or vice versa.
(c) A change in filler metal classification from Group No. 1 or Group No. 2 to any other group or from any Group No. 3 through 9 to Group No. 1 or Group No. 2. Also, a change in filler metal classification not listed in Table 1 to any other filler metal or vice versa.

6.4 Visual Examination

Visual examination of the test weld must precede any preparation of samples for mechanical testing. If the visual examination reveals cracks, inadequate penetration, burn-through, or unacceptable amounts of undercut, rejection is automatic and another test weld must be prepared. In addition, an inspector may reject the weldment if it does not present a neat, workman-like appearance. Welds made by semiautomatic (e.g. GMAW) or mechanized (e.g. SAW) processes may be rejected if too much filler wire protrudes into the interior of the pipe (sometimes referred to as “bird’s nests” or “whiskers”), although API 1104 offers no definition of what “shall be kept to a minimum” means.“

6.5 Destructive Testing

Paragraph 6.5.1 details the testing requirements for butt weld qualifications. Test specimens shall be cut from the test welds at the locations shown in Figure 1 2 on page 28. The number and type of specimens required are listed in Table 3 on page 30. Figure 1 2, Table 3, and paragraph 6.5.1 should be used together for determining welder qualification test requirements. The test specimen locations are exactly the same as those required for procedure qualification, shown in Figure 3 on page 1 8. The number and type of specimens required for welder qualification, however, are slightly different. Table 3 for welder qualification on page 30 is arranged the same as Table 2 for procedure qualification on page 1 9. The only difference is in the number of specimens required. The similarity of these two tables makes them easy to confuse. Make sure you are referencing the correct table in API 1104: Table 2 on page 1 9 when welding procedures are being qualified and Table 3 on page 30 when welders are being qualified.

Since smaller pipes have less material from which to remove specimens, for pipes less than 2.375 inches in OD, it may be necessary to weld an additional test joint to obtain the required number of test specimens. Furthermore, for pipe 1 .31 5 inches in OD or less, footnote a of Table 3 on page 30 (and Note 2 of Figure 1 2 on page 28 and paragraph 6.5.1 ) provides the option of pulling a single full-section tension test specimen in lieu of performing the required two root bend and nick break tests.

When welders qualify by making butt welds, paragraph 6.5.2 states that the specimens shall be prepared for tensile strength, nick break, and bend tests, as applicable, and the tests shall be performed as described for procedure qualification testing in subsection 5.6. Since the purpose of welder qualification is to determine the welder’s ability to deposit sound weld metal, it is not necessary to determine the tensile strength of the tension test specimens. The tension test may even be omitted, in which case the specimens designated for the tension test shall be subjected to the nick break test.

The tensile strength test requirements for welder qualification are detailed in paragraph 6.5.3. This test is really just a weld metal soundness test. If any of the reduced-section specimens or the full section specimen fails in the weld or at the junction of the weld and the base metal, the fractured surface must meet the soundness requirements of paragraph 5.6.3.3, which is the acceptance criteria for the fractured surface of a nick break specimen. If the specimen fails in the parent material, the weld metal is considered to be acceptable.

Paragraph 6.5.4 gives the requirements for the nick break tests for welder qualification and states that these specimens must meet the same acceptance criteria as those for procedure qualification. See paragraph 5.6.3.3.

The requirements for the bend tests for welder qualification are given in paragraph 6.5.5, which references the same acceptance criteria as those for procedure qualification in paragraphs 5.6.4.3 or 5.6.5.3, as applicable. However, there are two exceptions: Welds in the high-strength pipe may crack or break before they bend to a full U shape. In that case, the specimen is acceptable as long as the exposed surfaces meet the requirements for nick break tests as given in paragraph 5.6.3.3. The other exception is that the company may permit the testing of an additional bend specimen removed from the same test weld to replace a failed bend specimen if, in their opinion, the failure was not representative of the weld. The welder shall be disqualified if this additional specimen fails.

Paragraph 6.5.6 requires that fillet welds be tested using nick break specimens, as shown in Figure 1 0 on page 25. Four specimens shall be removed from locations approximately 90 degrees apart to qualify each welder.

Paragraph 6.5.7 gives the instructions for cutting, preparing, and testing the nick break specimens for welder qualification. When specimens are removed from a complete circumferential test weld, subsection 5.8 and Figures 1 0 and 1 1 on page 25 apply. If the test weld consists of multiple pipe segments (weldments), each segment must supply the same number of specimens. The acceptance criteria for each specimen are given in paragraph 5.8.3.

6.6 Nondestructive Testing (NDT) – Butt Welds Only

At the company’s option, the qualification butt weld may be examined by radiographic testing or automatic ultrasonic testing instead of mechanical testing and meet the requirements in 9.3 or 9.6, respectively. It is not permitted to use NDT methods to purposely locate sound areas or defective areas and subsequently making tests of such areas to qualify or disqualify a welder. Be aware that jurisdictional limitations may override API 1 1 04 and, in doing so, may restrict the use of NDT methods in lieu of mechanical testing for welder qualification.

6.7 Retesting

If a welder fails a test but the company and the welder’s representatives mutually agree that the welder wasn’t at fault, the welder may be given a second chance to qualify. If the welder fails the second time, the welder must submit proof of additional welder training that is acceptable to the company before taking the test for the third time.

6.8 Records

A record that documents the test results for each welder shall be maintained. Furthermore, a list of welders and the procedures for which they are qualified shall also be maintained. If the abilities of a welder come into question, the welder may be required to requalify.

Click here to Start Course-Section 7: Design and Preparation of a Joint for Production Welding

Section 4: Specifications – CWI Part C

Please go to Section 4: Specifications – CWI Part C to view the test

Read Carefully and Take a Test

Section 4: Specifications

4.1 Equipment

This subsection calls for good judgment, sound engineering, suitable operating practices, and attention to safety in the operation of welding equipment. Arc welding equipment shall be operated within the voltage and current ranges specified on the welding procedure specification. Gas welding equipment shall be operated with the fame characteristics and tip sizes given in the qualified WPS.

4.2 Materials

Paragraph 4.2.1 says that pipe and fittings must conform to API or any applicable ASME, ASTM, MSS, or ANSI specifications, but it then further states that materials that comply with the chemical and mechanical properties of any of these specifications are also acceptable, even if they are not manufactured in accordance with the specification. This suggests that the chemical and mechanical properties of any such material must be identified, preferably on the welding procedure specification, when used for an API 1104 application.

Paragraph 4.2.2.1 states that filler metals must conform to one of the listed AWS filler metal specifications. Other filler metals may be used as long as the applicable welding procedures are qualified.

Table 1, in Section 5 on pages 1 5-1 6, divides filler metals into nine groups, based on electrode characteristics and the welding processes that use them. It is important to note that the Group Numbers that API 1104 uses are different than the F-Numbers that AWS uses to group filler metals. For instance, the low-hydrogen SMAW electrodes are F-No. 4 electrodes as defined by AWS, but they are Group No. 3 electrodes in API 1104. Table 1 lists:

(a) Group Numbers for filler metals, electrodes, and fluxes.
(b) AWS Specifications.
(c) AWS Classifications for filler metals and electrodes.
(d) AWS Classifications for fluxes.

Group Nos. 1, 2, and 3 electrodes are for SMAW. Group No. 4 electrodes and fluxes are for SAW. Group No. 5 electrodes are for GMAW, GTAW, and PAW. Group No. 6 electrodes are for OFW and Group Nos. 7, 8, and 9 are for FCAW.

Be attentive to the footnotes in Table 1, which modify the requirements for use of certain electrodes, filler metals, or fluxes and may give additional rules.

Paragraph 4.2.2.2 requires protection of filler metals and fluxes from deterioration and excessive changes in moisture, although no definition of “excessive” is provided. Obviously, if the flux coating on a SMAW electrode is damaged, it should not be used because it will not operate properly. Low hydrogen SMAW electrodes (AWS classifications which end in 5, 6, or 8) must be stored in such a way that their coatings do not absorb excessive moisture from the atmosphere prior to use for welding.

Although it is not specifically required by API 1104, there are recommended good manufacturing practices for the storage and use of low-hydrogen SMAW electrodes in applicable AWS filler metal specifications. These include

(a) The storage of these electrodes in a heated, vented oven at a prescribed temperature after removal from their hermetically sealed containers,

(b) Limited exposure to the atmosphere, and

(c) Recommended minimum baking times and temperatures after atmospheric exposure.

Paragraph 4.2.3.1 addresses the various types of shielding gases used for welding. Inert shielding gases do not react chemically with the weld pool; they work by simply shielding the weld pool from interacting with the gases in the atmosphere. An active gas, however, does interact with either the arc, the weld pool, or in some cases, both. Inert gases include argon and helium. Active gases include carbon dioxide and oxygen. In GMAW, sometimes mixtures of inert and active shielding gases are used.

Gases must be relatively pure and dry and the shielding gas or gases to be used shall be qualified in accordance with the applicable essential variable rules for procedure qualification. API 1104 does not reference AWS A5.32 for purity requirements for shielding gases.

Paragraph 4.2.3.2 addresses storage and handling of gases for welding. Gases shall not be fled intermixed in their containers and gases of questionable purity or gases from damaged containers shall not be used.

Click here to Start Course-Section 5: Qualification of Welding Procedures with Filler Metal Additions