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Note: Some questions in this section are true/false or essay type questions, instead of multiple choice. Historically, it has been shown that test questions on involve a good deal of theory that cannot adequately be explored through multiple choice questions (although multiple choice questions only will be on the test).
1. A film side penetrameter can be used for:
a. Inaccessible welds (unable to hand place a source penetrameter) b. All welds c. All castings at any time d. An alternative to a source-side wire pentrameter
2. A dark image of the “B” on a lighter background is:
a. Acceptable b. Rejectable c. Sometimes rejectable d. None of the above
3. One of the procedural requirements for conducting PT is to address the processing details for :
a. Post-examination cleaning b. Pre-examination cleaning c. Apply the penetrant d. All of the above
4. Non-aqueous developer may be applied to a wet surface.
a. True b. False
5. The accuracy of a piece of magnetizing equipment that is equipped with an ammeter shall be verified :
a. Each year b. Each two years c. When possible d. Every 6 months
6. When using fluorescent particles, the examiner shall be in a darkened area for at least ________ minutes prior to performing the examination.
a. 7 b. 10 c. 5 d. 1
7. A wire IQI shall be placed adjacent to the weld, with the wires parallel to the weld.
a. True b. False
8. Certification of contaminants shall be obtained for all PT materials used on:
a. Carbon steels b. Ferritic stainless steels c. Austenitic stainless steels d. None of the above
9. Black light intensity shall be measured with a _______ when conducting fluorescent PT.
a. Dark room meter b. Photo-meter c. Black light meter d. None of the above
10. The location markers required by ASME V are required to appear as radiographic images.
a. True b. False
11. D.C. yokes may be used for detecting subsurface discontinuities, per ASME V?
a. True b. False
12. How many total liquid penetrant techniques are listed in ASME V?
a. 4 b. 6 c. 2 d. 1
13. Prior to examinations, each adjacent surface shall be cleaned within at least _____ of the area to be examined.
a. 1 b. 1.5 c. 2 d. 3
14. Water washable penetrant shall be removed with a water spray not exceeding 60 psi and 1000F.
a. True b. False
15. The maximum emulsification time shall be:
a. 5 minutes b. 10 minutes c. 15 minutes d. none of the above
16. Densitometers shall be calibrated by verification with a calibrated:
a. Densitometer b. Step Wedge Comparison Strip c. Light Meter d. Transmission monitor
17. When using a hydrophillic emulsifier versus a lipophilic emulsifier and intermediate step that must be taken is:
a. Pre-flooding with emulisifier b. Pre-cleaning with solvent c. Pre-rinsing with water d. Pre-washing with detergent
18. A welded part is to be radiographed and is 1” thick, with 1/8” reinforcement. What ASTM wire set IQI should be used on these radiographs if a source side technique is used:
a. Set A b. Set B c. Set C d. Set D
19. When a PT test cannot be conducted between 500-1250F, what must be done, per ASME V?
a. The procedure must be qualified b. The surface must be re-cleaned c. The test cannot be conducted d. None of the above
20. All indications are to be evaluated in accordance with:
a. ASME VIII b. ASME V c. The referencing Code section d. The written procedure
21. The scope of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel, Code, Section V includes:
a. NDE acceptance crtieria b. How to perform NDE to achieve a desired result . c. Where to do NDE (i.e. what welds to examine ) d. Who can be the Authorised inspector.
22. UT equipment is calibrated?
a. Before heat-treatment b. After completing the examination c. Prior to visual examination d. Prior to UT examination .
23. A penetrameter is used on a DWE/DWV. The penetrameter selection is based on:
a. The single wall thickness and weld reinforcement. b. Both wall thicknesses c. The single wall thickness for Sch 80 pipe d. None of the above
24. A suitable means for applying penetrant.
a. Dipping b. Brushing c. Spraying d. Any or all of the above .
25. What materials require the use of tested and certified liquid penetrants as to the contaminants in the penetrant?
a. Nickel alloys b. Austenitic stainless steel alloys c. Ferritic / martensific stainless steel d. Both a and b, above .
26. How shall indications be evaluated, i.e. acceptance standards for RT?
a. To ASME V b. To ASME VIII c. To B31.3 d. To the referencing Code section .
27. How shall Nondestructive Examination Personnel be qualified?
a. To SNT-TC 1A b. To CP-189 c. To referencing code requirements . d. To ACCP rules
28. Which NDE methods are considered “surface” methods?
a. PT b. RT c. MT d. Both A & C above.
29. What designation is used to indicate the penetrameter is on the film side?
a. A “F” . b. An “E” c. A “D” d. A “FS”
30. What is a shim used for?
a. UT field adequacy b. RT field direction c. MT field strength and direction. d. MT field current applications
31. Why must the surface be closely observed during the application of the PT developer?
a. To ensure proper coating application b. To ensure excess penetrant removal c. To allow proper characterization of discontinuities. d. To see the “groovy” lines form
32. Name one typical discontinuity detectable by the magnetic particle method.
a. Lack of penetration b. Inter-pass lack of fusion c. Slag inclusions d. Toe cracks .
33. For a DWE/SWV RT Technique, a minimum of ___________________ exposures shall be made.
a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 . d. 4
34. When are location markers placed on the film side in SWV for curved surfaces?
a. Concave side is toward the source b. Source – to – material distance greater than IR c. A cobalt source is used d. Both a and b, above .
35. What is the difference between an inspection and an examination per Section V of the ASME Code?
a. Inspection performed by AI b. Examination performed by manufacturer’s personnel c. There is no difference between the two d. Both a and b, above .
36. Name one typical discontinuity detectable by the liquid penetrant method
a. I.P. on an NPS 2 girth weld b. I.F. at the root of an NPS 2 girth weld c. HAZ surface cracks on a NPS 2 girth weld . d. Slag inclusions on a NPS 8 longitudinal weld
37. What is to be done to excess penetrant remaining on the surface after the specified penetration time has elapsed?
a. It must be removed . b. It can remain on the part c. It must be developed d. It must be removed with water only
38. What must be done to ensure 100% coverage on any NDE method?
Answer: All examinations must overlap to ensure 100% coverage of the part.
39. When surface irregularities may mask indications of unacceptable discontinuities, what is required?
Answer: Grinding, machining, or other methods .
40. List the type of discontinuities magnetic particle examination is effective in detecting.
Answer: Surface and slight subsurface indications .
41. What are the six penetrant techniques to be used?
Color contrast or fluorescent a. Water washable b. Post – emulsifying c. Solvent removable
42. What are the approved methods of indicating UT thickness measurements?
Answer: CRT, Digital, or meter .
43. How is the “quality” of a radiograph evaluated?
Answer: Ability to see the prescribed hole or wire on the designated penetrameter and compliance with density requirements.
44. Where are RT location markers placed, on the part or on the radiograph?
Answer: On the part .
45. The IQI may be of what two types?
Answer: Hole or wire types .
46. What is the critical hole in a hole type IQI?
Answer: 2T .
47. What identity must also be included in the UT calibration records?
Answer: Equipment, Probe and Calibration block identity .
48. The IQI is normally placed on which side of a part?
Answer: Source side .
49. A 4T hole on a 20 IQI has a diameter of:
50. List 4 types of blemishes (artifacts) not permitted on film.
a) Fogging b) Processing defects c) Scratches, finger marks, etc. d) False indications due to defective screens
51. When is a written radiographic procedure required by ASME V?
Answer: Article 2 requires the use of a written procedure for RT in all cases, but T-150 overrides, which states procedures are only required when specified by the referencing code section (same as for UT,MT,PT and other NDE methods)
52. When should the developer be applied?
Answer:As soon as possible after penetrant removal. Not to exceed time in written procedure.
53. What type of discontinuity is the magnetic particle method most sensitive to?
Answer:Surface discontinuities aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field.
54. What is the examination medium when using MT? What is the probing medium when using MT?
Answer:Ferro magnetic particles, magnetic fields.
55. When must ultrasonic equipment be calibrated?
Answer: a) Beginning and end of each examination b) When personnel are changed c) Anytime malfunction is suspected d) Linearity check every 90 days
56. How many IQIs should appear on each radiograph, except for panoramic techniques?
Answer:At least one on each radiograph.
57. Are intensifying screens permitted for radiography per ASME V?
Answer:Yes, except when restricted by the referencing Code .
58. What two radiographic techniques are noted as available for examinations?
Answer: Single wall and double wall .
59. How can compliance with a written radiographic procedure be demonstrated?
Answer: By compliance with density and penetrameter image on the production or procedure qualification radiographs .
60. List the type of discontinuity liquid penetrant examination is effective in detecting.
Answer: Discontinuities that are open to surface .
61. What must be done when a penetrant is to be applied on parts beyond 50°F – 125°F?
Answer: The procedure must be qualified using a quench – cracked aluminium block.
62. The lifting power of yokes must be checked when?
Answer: Prior to use within the last year or if the yoke has been damaged. Permanent magnet yokes checked daily. T272 .
63. How should welded butt-joints be prepared for radiograph?
Answer: The weld ripples or surface irregularities on both the inside (if accessible) and outside shall be removed by any suitable means
64. In magnetic particle examination of a welded joint using yokes, is alternating current or direct current allowed?
Answer: AC yoke (Table – I721).
65. A ____________________________ is a device used to determine the image quality of radiograph
a. A step wedge comparison film b. A densitometer c. An IQI .Answer: d. All of the above e. None of the above
66. In accordance with Section V, wire – type penetrameters:
a. Can always be used .Answer: b. Can be used unless restricted by the referencing Code c. Can never be used d. Can be used only with Type 1 film
67. A. What is meant by “non –destructive examination” of a welded joint?
Answer: An examination of a welded joint that will disclose surface and sub-surface discontinuities without physical harm to the welded joint. Such examinations can be conducted by radiography, ultrasonics, liquid penetrant or magnetic particle testing.
B. Name four methods of non-destructive examination.
68. In a radiographic film of a weld, how are the following characteristics measured or judged?
a. Film sensitivity or quality Answer:IQI.
b. Film density
Answer:Densitometers or step-wedge comparison films.
69. What is radiography?
Answer: A radiograph is a shadow picture produced by the passage of X-rays or gamma – rays through an object onto a film. When the rays pass through the object, part of the radiation penetrates the material and part is absorbed. The amount of radiation absorbed and the amount that penetrates are a function of the thickness of the material. Where a void or discontinuity exists, there is essentially less material to absorb the radiation. Therefore, more radiation will pass through this section and a dark spot corresponding to the projected position of the void will appear on the film.
70. What is the minimum and maximum allowable density through the image of the penetrameter for radiographs made with:
a. A 2000 kV tube?
Answer: 1.8 – 4.0 ( for any X-ray source )
b. Cobalt 60 (Co60)?
Answer: 2.0 – 4.0 ( for any gamma source)
71. A single film technique was used to make a radiograph using a Cobalt-60 source. The minimum permitted density in the area of interest is:
a. 4.0 b. 1.8 c. 2.0 d. 1.3 e. None of the above Answer: e. The correct answer is –15% from the transmitted density through the body of the penetrameter
72. Under ASME Code Section V, what upper and lower density limits are acceptable for viewing if the density through the body of the penetrameter is 2.7? Assume single film viewing.
Answer: -15% = 2.295 +30% = 3.510
73. What is the minimum number of IQI required for the following:
A. A complete girth seam containing 30 radiographs shot with a single exposure?
Answer: Requires at least 3 IQIs spaced 1200 apart.
B. Twelve radiographs on a longitudinal seam shot from the outside with a single exposure?
Answer:Requiresat least 12 IQI, one on each film.
74. A radiograph is made using an X-ray source, and two films in each film holder. If the film is to be viewed separately the minimum permitted density would be:
a. 4.0 b. 1.8 .Answer c. 2.0 d. 1.3 e. None of the above
75. A weld with a nominal thickness of 1.5 inch is to be radiographed using a film side penetrameter. The penetrameter designation should be: (Note: This is an open book question)
a. 25 Answer b. 30 c. 35 d. Both a and b are acceptable?
76. A) What are hole – type penetrameters and what are they used for?
Answer:An IQI is a small strip of material, fabricated of radiographically similar material to the object being inspected, and having a thickness of approximately 2% of the object being radiographed. The IQI has three holes in it. The sizes of these holes are 1T, 2T and 4T where “T” is the thickness of the IQI. The 2T is designated as the essential hole, i.e., the hole whose image must appear on the radiograph. IQI thickness and essential hole size requirements are listed in tables in Section V of the ASME Code. The IQI is identified with a number made of lead that is attached to the IQI. This number indicates the thickness of the IQI in thousandths of an inch. An IQI is used for evaluating radiographic technique in that it serves as an image quality indicator, proper technique should display the IQI image and the specified hole.
B) What are wire penetrameters and what are they used for?
Answer: Wire type IQI use thin wires to ascertain sensitivity instead of holes. The ability to see the wire required by the Code indicates a quality radiograph.
77. In radiographing a butt welded joint of 1” thickness, on what side of the weld is the penetrameter normally placed?
Answer: The IQI should be placed the source side of the material being radiographed. However, where inaccessibility prevents this, the IQI may be placed on the film side of the material being radiographed provided a lead letter “F” at least as high as the identification number is placed adjacent to the IQI.
78. What type of flaws may be detected by:
1. Liquid Penetrant testing?
2. Magnetic Particle testing?
Answer:Surface and slight sub-surface discontinuitie
3. Radiographic examination?
Answer:Surface and sub-surface discontinuities
4. Ultrasonic examination?
Answer: Surface and sub-surface discontinuities
79. What is a densitometer used to determine?
Answer: A densitometer ( or step wedge comparison film ) shall be used for judging film density requirements. Film density is a measure of overall darkening of the radiograph, which is directly related to the sensitivity, definition, and overall quality of the technique.
80. Name two radiation sources permitted for radiographic examination in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
Answer:The two common radiographic sources in industrial use today are X-ray machines and artificially produced radioactive isotopes of certain metallic elements.
81. When reviewing a radiograph, a dark image of the letter B can be seen on the film. Does this indicate an unacceptable radiograph?
82. Describe how liquid penetrant examination should be performed in order to detect discontinuities that are open to the surface, per Article 6 of ASME Code section V.
Answer: The part is first thoroughly cleaned of oil, dirt, etc, and then a liquid penetrant is applied to the surface to be examined and allowed to enter the discontinuities. All excess penetrant is then removed, the part is dried, and a developer is applied. The developer functions both as a blotter to absorb penetrant that has been trapped in discontinuities and as a contrasting background to enhance the visibility of penetrant indications. The dyes in penetrants are either color contrast (visible under white light) or fluorescent (visible under ultraviolet light)
83. A) If IQIs are not placed on the source side, what rules apply?
Answer: The penetrameter should be placed on the source side of the material being radiographed. However, where inaccessibility prevents this, the penetrameter may be placed on the film side of the material being radiographed provided a lead letter “F” at least as high as the identification number is placed adjacent to the penetrameter.
B) For materials being radiographed other than welds, where are the IQIs placed?
Answer:For material other than weld a source side penetrameter shall be placed in the area of interest.
84. If the density through the IQI is 2.50, what would the maximum allowable density and minimum allowable density be through the weld represented by this un-shimmed IQI?
Answer: Minus 15% to plus 30% allowed 2.5 + 30% = 2.5 + 0.75 = 3.25 2.5 – 15% = 2.5 – 0.4 = 2.125
85. On a set of cassettes containing film for a seam just radiographed you notice the lead location markers (i.e. 1-2, 2-3 etc.) are taped to the cassettes. Would these radiographs be acceptable?
Answer:No. Location makers that are to appear on the radiographic film should be placed on the part being examined and not on the cassettes.
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